Scholarly version: I research forms of attention from a qualitative-humanistic perspective, seeking to proliferate attention’s diversity, resources, and agencies. My writings explicate the social construction of attentions as they develop through technology, culture, and rhetorical agency. Case studies help me trace out distinctive dynamics of attention formation and how they affect what can be done and thought in a medium. I am writing a book on attention literacy that conceives attention rhetorically, that is, as a capacity malleable to situations, goals, and strategies. In this light, attention is both heuristic and hermeneutic for mediated communication--an adaptable para-technology accompanying our future-ward encounters with changing environments.

Public version: How are attentional forms constructed? What agencies do we have with it? In what ways can we “do attention better”? My research pursues these questions via some new vocabulary and methods for people to gain control over their types of attention in any given situation (especially regarding communication). We are not so “attention deficient” but are merely impoverished to talk and think about it more richly to avoid the pitfalls of our attentionally-challenging world.

Current Book Project

Attention Literacy: A Rhetorical Approach. Abstract, based upon PhD dissertation.

Winner: The Harold A. Innis Award for Outstanding Dissertation in the Field of Media Ecology, Media Ecology Association, 2017


Marshall McLuhan’s Theory of Attention: How to Become a Psychonaut. Explorations in Media Ecology, vol. 19, no. 4, 2020.

Abstract: In light of surging cross-disciplinary interest in rethinking the conceptions of attention and attention economy, this article conducts an archeology of Marshall McLuhan’s concepts in order to construct a theory of attention implicit in his media paradigm. McLuhan’s most attentional concepts are explained (such as figure/ground and cliché/archetype) and synthesized into an integrated account of his idea of attention, which I call “eco-formed attention.” It contrasts with reigning individualist and collectivist theories of attention by being constitutive, modal, dialectical, environmental, and negative-inclusive. I argue that McLuhan’s fundamental problematic of attention—concepts mismatching percepts—is solved by using eco-formed attention to become a “media psychonaut.” Four procedures are explained to illustrate psychonautic interventions in eco-formed attention. This project is useful for media-ecological analyses, creative re-engagement with media, and reforming attention within future technological changes. The article concludes by linking to several agendas in media ecology and across the humanities.

Music Performativity in the Album: Charles Mingus, Nietzschean Aesthetics, and Mental Theater. Liminalities: A Journal of Performance Studies, vol. 16, no. 3, 2020.

Abstract: This article analyzes a canonical jazz album through Nietzschean and performance studies concepts, illuminating the album as a case study of multiple performativities. I analyze Mingus’ Black Saint and the Sinner Lady as performing classical theater across the album’s images, texts, and music, and as a performance to be constructed in audiences’ minds as the sounds, texts, and visuals never simultaneously meet in the same space. Drawing upon Nietzschean aesthetics, I suggest how this performative space operates as “mental theater,” hybridizing diverse traditions and configuring distinct dynamics of aesthetic possibility. In this crossroads of jazz traditions, theater traditions, and the album format, Mingus exhibits an artistry between performing the album itself as imagined drama stage and between crafting this space’s Apollonian/Dionysian interplay in a performative understanding of aesthetics, sound, and embodiment. This case study progresses several agendas in performance studies involving music performativity, the concept of performance complex, the Dionysian, and the album as a site of performative space.

Needs and Policies: Dubai Classroom Narratives of Mobile Phones. Co-author Bradley Freeman. Global Media Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, 2019.

Abstract: This study questions the commonly assumed variables used for studying students’ rapidly changing relationships with smartphones, particularly in West Asia. To update how we think about and study cellphone use, a narrative analysis was conducted upon students’ reported cellphone experiences. Students report managing contradictions between issues of necessity, distraction, lack of control, and insufficient cultural coping, which together capture a historical moment in the tensions of culture, technology, and pedagogy that drive the dialectics of socio-cultural necessities and institutional policies. The conclusion suggests ways these findings can update the categories used to study cellphone use in classrooms.

Revise and Resubmit/Under Review

Gaming Google, Playing Its Spiders: Practicing Rhetoric Within Search Engines’ Evolving Information Ecologies.

The “Roots” of Philosophy: Metaphysical Implications of Arabic’s and English’s Grammar and Semantics. Co-author Summer Loomis.

Aristotle’s Theory of Attention in the Rhetoric: A Plurality of Means.

In Progress

The Dialog Laboratory: a Student-Centered Experiential Method for Any Discipline (in progress via Provost’s research grant, expected submission to International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education)

Abstract: This essay presents a classroom innovation that creates experiential process-learning adaptable across disciplines and contexts. What I call a “dialog laboratory” revives abandoned interpersonal communication methods and adapts them to contemporary pedagogical needs. Dialog laboratories offer principles for designing student activities that 1) necessitate that individuals create knowledge rather transmit pre-constituted information, 2) foreground the reflexive dimension to inquiry, 3) collectivize the process of thinking through dialogic interactions, and 4) change students’ habitual patterns of thinking. The main source of this method comes from Gerard Egan’s Face to Face. A case study of this method is presented, which was taught 5 times by the author as two different courses at an American R1 university. The last section discusses 6 example ways that dialog laboratories can be adapted to different disciplines.

Kenneth Burke’s Theory of Attention: Homo Symbolicus Attentio. (in progress for KBJ: The Journal of the Kenneth Burke Society)

Abstract: In light of cross-disciplinary interest in rethinking the conceptions of attention and attention economy, this article conducts an archeology of Kenneth Burke’s concepts in order to construct a theory of attention implicit in his dramatism paradigm. Burke’s most attentional concepts are explained (such as terministic screens and orientation) and synthesized into an integrated account of his idea of attention, which I call “symbol-formed attention.” It contrasts with reigning theories of attention in rhetorical studies by being pluralistic, dialectical, socio-poetic, non-deterministic, and formally malleable. I argue that Burke’s fundamental problematic of attention— well-oriented dramatistic fullness —is solved by using symbol-formed attention by a Burkean ethic of multi-perspectivity. Four procedures are explained to illustrate such attentionally-corrective interventions in symbol-formed attention. This project is useful for rhetorical analyses, creative engagement with communication, and reforming attention structures via symbols.

Book Chapters

The Argument Lab”. Chapter co-authored with Jay Heinrichs in Thank You for Arguing. 3rd ed., New York, NY: Three Rivers Press (Penguin Random House), 2017. 44 pages. Translated into 15 languages. 400,000 copies sold across editions. Book’s impact: Amazon #1 Best Seller in Speech and Communications (June-August 2018-2019), 415th and 243rd for all Amazon book sales (July 2018 & 2019), and the 10th most assigned book at Harvard University.

The Argument Lab”. Chapter co-authored with Jay Heinrichs in Thank You for Arguing. 2nd ed., New York, NY: Three Rivers Press (Penguin Random House), 2013. 42 pages. Translated into 15 languages. Book’s impact: New York Times Education Best Seller (Summer 2015-2017) and Amazon #1 Best Seller in Speech Communications (June 2014-2017). Reviewed in Rhetoric Review, 26:4 (2007); Contemporary Argumentation & Debate, 28:1 (2007); Rhetoric Review, 28:1 (2009); Pedagogy: Critical Approaches to Teaching Literature, Language, Composition, and Culture, 12:3 (2012); Forensic, 100:2 (2015). Book taught in 3,500 college courses including Harvard Kennedy School of Government & Harvard Writing Program, Columbia University, New York University, and 100+ AP Language courses.